Mechanized and Optimized Configuration Pattern of Crop-Mulberry Systems for Controlling Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution on Sloping Farmland in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
High-intensity utilization of sloping farmland causes serious soil erosion and agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNSP) in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). Crop-mulberry systems are important agroforestry systems for controlling soil, water, and nutrient losses. However, there are many different mulberry hedgerow planting patterns in the TGRA. In this study, soil structure, nutrient buildup, and runoff nutrient loss were observed in field runoff plots with five configurations: P1 (two longitudinal mulberry hedgerows), P2 (two mulberry contour hedgerows), P3 (three mulberry contour hedgerows), P4 (mulberry hedgerow border), and P5 (mulberry hedgerow border and one mulberry contour hedgerow), as well as a control (CT; no mulberry hedgerows). P1 had the smallest percentage of aggregate destruction (18.8%) and largest mean weight diameter (4.48 mm). P5 led to the greatest accumulation of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) and total phosphorus (TP) (13.4 kg ha(-1) and 1444.5 kg ha(-1) on average, respectively), while P4 led to the greatest accumulation of available phosphorus (AP), nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N), and total nitrogen (TN) (114.0, 14.9, and 1694.1 kg ha(-1), respectively). P5 was best at preventing soil erosion, with the smallest average annual runoff and sediment loss of 112.2 m(3) ha(-1) and 0.06 t ha(-1), respectively, which were over 72.4% and 87.4% lower than those in CT, respectively. P5 and P4 intercepted the most N in runoff, with average NH4+-N, NO3--N, particulate N, and TN losses of approximately 0.09, 0.07, 0.41, and 0.58 kg ha(-1), respectively, which were 49.7%, 76.2%, 71.3%, and 69.9% lower than those in CT, respectively. P5 intercepted the most P in runoff, with average TP and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) losses of 0.09 and 0.04 kg ha(-1), respectively, which were 77.5% and 70.4% lower than those in CT, respectively. Therefore, the pattern with one mulberry hedgerow border and one mulberry contour hedgerow (P5) best controlled AGNSP, followed by that with only a mulberry hedgerow border (P4).
Author(s): Zhong, SQ; Han, Z; Li, JW; Xie, DT; Yang, QY; Ni, JP
Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health